By Chief K.Masimba Biriwasha
Harare, Zimbabwe – Charles Raradza, 44, fell seriously ill in 2001, coughing uncontrollably. He went to get tested for tuberculosis (TB) at a nearby hospital but the bacteria was not detected in his sputum.
Unconvinced, Raradza went to another hospital where a sputum and lung X-ray test revealed that he was indeed TB-infected.
“I was immediately enrolled into the hospital’s directly observed treatment therapy (DOTS), and had to take 13 tablets a day. The tablets were very painful. I guess because I love life so much I never defaulted during the six months that I was on the course,” said Raradza.
After two years, Raradza started coughing again. He went to get tested for TB again.
“At the hospital, it was discovered that I had TB, so I was given 60 injections and tablets – its was painful but I stuck through it. I was put on the 6-month long DOTS programme again,” he said.
In 2005 Raradza said he went to a Voluntary Counseling and Testing centre to get tested for HIV.
“It was unheard of then for anyone to go and get tested but I gathered my courage and went to the testing centre. I tested HIV positive, and was enrolled into the anteritroviral programme,” he said.
After noticing Raradza’s poor response to the AIDS drugs, Raradza said that a doctor-friend of his recommended another TB test. For a third time in his life, Raradza had TB, and he had to go through the treatment regimen of 60 injection and tablets.
According to Dr Tonderai Murimwa, an official in the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare’s AIDS and TB Unit, Raradza’s case of failed detection of TB is not unique and is attributed to changing epidemiological patterns in Zimbabwe.
“Diagnosis of TB is usually straightforward, the best test is sputum microscopy. But HIV changes the way the body reacts to infections. That’s why X-ray is now required but it is very expensive technology and the country cannot afford it at the moment,” said Dr Tonderai Murimwa, an official in the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare’s AIDS and TB unit.
Murimwa added that the drug distribution in the country had experienced severe challenges over the past decade due to lack of material resources such as transport, fuel and personnel.me
TB is a leading cause of illness and death for people living with HIV—about one in five of the world’s 1.8 million AIDS-related deaths in 2009 was associated with TB. The majority of people living with HIV and TB are in sub-Saharan Africa. The risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) is estimated to be between 20-37 times greater in people living with HIV than among those without HIV infection.
According to UNAIDS, TB places a heavy burden on people living with HIV including significant illness that requires at a minimum six months of treatment, with the associated economic costs to the individual, his or her family and the health-care system.
Among African nations, Zimbabwe is one of those most heavily affected by tuberculosis (TB). The deadly combination of TB and HIV epidemics is igniting a silent and uncontrollable epidemic of drug resistant TB that will negate previous national health gains.
The 2009 Global Tuberculosis Control Report from the World Health Organization (WHO) ranks Zimbabwe 17th among 22 countries worldwide with the highest TB burden. Zimbabwe had an estimated 71,961 new TB cases in 2007, with an estimated incidence rate of 539 cases per 100,000 population.
For the past 20 years, Zimbabwe has fought TB fairly successfully, providing free access to WHO-recommended treatments. In the past few years, however, the disease has re-emerged as a leading killer, especially among HIV positive people, who are often not identified though long-established TB tests.
An estimated two-thirds of Zimbabweans with TB are also infected with HIV. As a consequence, Zimbabwe has a staggering six times more TB cases than it did 20 years ago. According to statistics, the success rate of directly observed treatment is just 74 percent, far below the WHO recommended rate of 85 percent.
“In Africa, HIV is the potent factor in the progression of latent TB. People living with HIV are susceptible to TB infection. TB is the most common serious infection associated with HIV infection. The two diseases go hand in hand. This call for an integrated and collaborative approach in dealing with the two conditions,” said Dr. Patrick Hazangwe, a WHO official.
In Zimbabwe, the TB problem is compounded by the fact that patients often fail to complete treatment because they cannot afford the transport costs to and from health centers. The lack of access to health services in remote or rural parts of the country adds to the likelihood that large numbers of TB infections are going undetected and untreated.
To complicate matters, the brain drain of qualified front-line health care workers from Zimbabwe has resulted in poor healthcare delivery. Leck of medical practitioners coupled with obsolete machinery has also worsened the problem.
According to Betty Chikava, Member of Parliament for Mt Darwin East, poor financing of the health ministry is a key hindrance to an effective response to TB and other diseases.
“The Ministry of Health and Child Welfare has received paltry funding – only 7 percent of its projected budget; medical personnel in the hospitals and clinics are seriously overworked. The Ministry of Finance needs to be brought into the picture so that they can finance the health ministry adequately,” she said.